We all know, teachers and students, how difficult the pronunciation of regular past simple is.
The past simple tense and past participle of all regular verbs end in -ed.
base form past simple past participle
work worked worked
In addition, many adjectives are made from the past participle and so end in -ed.
I like painted furniture.
The question is: How do we pronounce the -ed?
The answer is: In 3 ways - / Id/ or / t/ or / d/
If the base verb ends in one of these sounds /t/, /d/
for example : want wanted / Id/
for example : end ended /Id/
If the base verb end in an unvoiced sound /t/
/p/ hope hoped
/f/ laugh laughed
/s/ fax faxed
/S/ wash washed
/tS/ watch watched
/k/ like liked
If the verb ends in a voiced sound /d/
vowels play played
It is important to notice that it is the sound that is important, not the letter or spelling. For example, "fax" ends in the letter "x" but the sound /s/; "like" ends in the letter "e" but the sound /k/.
The following -ed words used as adjectives are pronounced with /Id/:
aged, blessed, crooked, dogged, learned, naked, ragged, wicked, wretched.
To practise the pronunciation you can click on the following links: